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您现在的位置: 语文频道 > 高中人教新课标网观天下
虚拟语气
时间:2014-8-20 9:26:23        作者:佚名        来源:学习周报

  虚拟语气是谓语动词的一种特殊形式,用来表示假设、猜测、建议、主观愿望、夸张或空想,而非客观存在的事实。

  一、虚拟语气用于条件状语从句

  1. 表示与现在事实相反,条件从句谓语动词用过去式(如果动词是be,多用were),主句谓语动词用“would (should, could, might) + 动词原形”。

  If they were here, they would help you.

  2. 表示与过去事实相反,条件从句谓语动词用“had + 过去分词”,主句谓语动词用“would (should, could, might) + have + 过去分词”。

  If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.

  3. 表示与将来事实相反,条件从句谓语动词用过去式或者“should + 动词原形”,或者“were to + 动词原形”,主句谓语动词用“would(should, could, might) + 动词原形”。

  If you succeeded / should succeed / were to succeed, everything would be all right.

  4. 错综时间条件句中

  主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,这时主、从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而不同,这叫做错综时间条件句。

  If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.

  (从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反)

  5. 虚拟条件句的倒装

  虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were, should或had,可将if省略,再把were, should或had 移到从句句首,实行倒装。

  Were they here now, they could help us. / If they were here now, they could help us.

  【注意】

  ①在虚拟语气的从句中,动词“be”的过去时态一律用“were”,不用“was”, 即在从句中“be”用“were”代替。

  If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你,就会去找他。

  ②在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。试比较:

  Weren’t it for the expense, I would go to Italy. (错)

  Were it not for the expense, I would go to Italy. (对)

  二、用with, without, but for(要不是), if only(要是), under, otherwise, or引导的短语,以及分词短语、独立主格结构、不定式短语表示的虚拟条件,若能用if条件句改写,谓语动词要按主句在现在、过去和将来的虚拟语气形式分别处理。

  Everything taken into consideration, they would have raised their output quickly. (独立主格结构)

  三、在as if, as though, even if, even though引导的从句中,谓语动词也按条件从句在现在、过去和将来的虚拟语气形式分别处理。

  Even if he were here, he could not solve the problem.

  四、虚拟语气用于宾语从句

  1. 在wish后面的宾语从句,表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句谓语动词用过去式;表示过去不能实现的愿望,从句谓语动词用过去完成式;表示将来不能实现的愿望,从句谓语动词用过去将来时。

  I wish it were spring all the year round.

  2. 在advise, command, demand, order, insist(坚持), propose, suggest(建议), recommend, request等后面的宾语从句中用“(should) + 动词原形”。

  We suggest that we (should) have a meeting.

  五、虚拟语气用于主语从句

  在a pity, a shame, no wonder, strange, sorry, necessary, natural, impossible, important后面that引导的主语从句中用“(should) + 动词原形”表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等。

  It is necessary / important / natural / strange that we should clean the room every day.

  六、虚拟语气用于名词的同位语从句、表语从句

  在名词advice, demand, plan, idea, order, request, proposal, suggestion后面的同位语从句或表语从句中,谓语动词用“(should) + 动词原形”的虚拟语气形式。

  We all agreed to his suggestion that we (should) go to Beijing for sightseeing.

  七、虚拟语气用于定语从句

  常用于It is time后面的that从句中,定语从句中谓语动词用过去式(be用were),或“should + 动词原形”(should不能省)来表示,意为“(现在)该……”

  It is (high) time we left / should leave.

  It is high time we were going.

  八、在would rather后面的that从句中,与现在或将来事实相反,谓语动词用过去时;与过去事实相反,谓语动词用过去完成时表虚拟语气。

  I would rather we were at home now. (现在)

  I would rather nothing had happened. (过去)

  I would rather you came tomorrow.

  

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