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您现在的位置: 语文频道 > 高中人教新课标网观天下
省略句
时间:2014-8-20 9:24:21        作者:佚名        来源:学习周报

  省略多见于非正式文体,尤其在对话中,省略是一种十分普遍的现象。英语中的省略有三个目的:

  1. 避免重复,减少累赘。

  省略的主要目的是避免重复,去掉不必要的累赘和繁琐。

  Mike said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he didn’t come to school to see me the next day. 迈克说他第二天要来学校看我,但是第二天他并没有来学校看我。

  Mike said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he didn’t.

  迈克说他第二天要来学校看我,但是他并没有来。(省掉最后几个词,句子简洁多了)

  2. 连接紧密,结构紧凑。

  省略也是使上下文紧密连接的一种修辞手段。

  John was the winner in 1994 and Bob in 1998. 约翰是1994年的获胜者,鲍勃是1998年的获胜者。(Bob后省略了was the winner,句子结构显得比较紧凑)

  3. 强调重点,突出信息。

  省略的另一作用是突出新的信息。

  —Have you told him that?

  —Not yet.

  ——你把那告诉他了吗?

  ——还没有呢。(= I have not told him that yet. 强调not yet)

  一、可省略的成分

  省略大致可归纳为功能词的省略和语法结构上的省略两种。在很多情况下,这两种省略存在着交叉的关系,即有时既是功能词的省略,同时又是语法结构上的省略。

  (一)功能词的省略

  功能词指的是没有完整意义,但有语法意义的词,如冠词、介词、助动词等。英语句子结构的简洁,首先表现在功能词的省略上。

  1. 冠词的省略

  Friend of mine told me about it. 我的一个朋友告诉了我这事。

  2. 代词的省略

  I went to the market,(I) bought something useful, and(I) returned home within an hour. 我去了市场,买了点有用的东西,一小时之内就回来了。

  They didn’t like it, yet (they) said nothing. 他们并不喜欢它,可是什么话也没说。

  (It) Doesn’t matter. 这不碍事。

  (You) Had a good time, didn’t you? 玩得开心,是吧?

  I like your three small bottles, but I don’t like the smallest(one).

  我喜欢这三个小瓶子,但我不喜欢最小的那一个。

  3. 连词的省略

  We are delighted(that) you can come.

  你能来,我们很高兴。

  It’s a pity(that) he’s leaving.

  他要走,真遗憾。

  4. 关系词的省略

  I’ll give you all(that) I have.

  我要把我所有的一切都给你。

  He read the book(which) I got yesterday.

  他看过我昨天买的书了。

  It happened on the day(when) we first met.

  这发生在我们初次见面的那一天。

  5. 助动词的省略

  (Does) Anyone want a drink?

  有谁要喝一杯吗?

  Who(do) you think you are?

  你以为你是谁?(在特殊疑问句中,当主语是第二人称时,助动词do可省略)

  I(have) got to go now. 我得走了。

  6. 不定式符号的省略

  I hope to finish my job and(to) go back home.

  我希望做完事回家。(当几个不定式并列时,一般只需在第一个不定式前用to)

  What we could do was(to) get away. (系动词之前若含有do,那么作表语的动词不定式往往省略to)

  We did not dare(to) speak. 我们不敢说话。(dare作行为动词用时,否定式可省略to)

  What a fire?鄄door does is(to) delay the spread of a fire. 防火门的作用就是使火势不能迅速蔓延。

  【注意】

  当两个并列的不定式在意义上表示对比关系时,后面的不定式一般不省略to。

  To be or not to be, that is the question. 活着还是死亡,这就是问题所在。

  It was better to laugh than to cry.

  笑比哭好。

  7. 介词的省略

  He went(in) that way. 他往那边去了。

  The two boys are(of) the same age.

  这两个男孩年龄一样大。

  I am in doubt(about) whether this is right or not.

  我拿不定主意这对不对。

  You may come to see me(at) any time between 4 and 5.

  你在4点到5点之间随时都可以来找我。

  She must have stayed here(for) a long time.

  她在这里一定呆了很久了。

  8. 引导词there的省略

  (There) Ought to be some coffee in the pot. 壶里应该有些咖啡的。

  (There) Must be somebody waiting for you. 肯定有人在等你。

  (二)句子成分的省略

  为了避免重复,或者为了使某一内容引人注目,可以省略某些句子成分而保持句子的原意不变。

  1. 省略主语

  Hope so. 希望如此。(= I hope so.)

  Take care!当心!(= You take care.)

  Serves you right. 你活该!(= It serves you right.)

  【注意】

  祈使句主语通常省略(如Take care!当心!)。但有时为了加强语气,可加上主语。

  You feed the bird today, will you?

  今天你喂鸟,好吗?

  Somebody answer the phone, please.

  请来个人接一下电话。

  2. 省略谓语

  Anything the matter? 要紧吗?(= Is anything the matter?)

  Who next? 该谁了?(= Who comes next?)

  Just a moment, please. 请等一会儿。(= Just wait a moment, please.)

  What we can’t get seems better than what we have. 我们得不到的似乎要比我们已经得到的要好。(= What we can’t get seems better than what we have got.)

  3. 省略表语

  He is a lover of sports as he was in his youth. 他还是像年轻时那样爱好运动。(was后面省略了表语a lover of sports)

  China has been, and still is, the most populous country in the world. 中国过去是,而且现在还是世界上人口最多的国家。(= China has been the most populous country in the world and still is the most populous country in the world.)

  4. 省略宾语

  We have to analyze and solve problems. 我们必须分析问题、解决问题。(analyze后省略了宾语problems)

  I struck match after match, but could not light. 我划了一根又一根火柴,但一根也没划着。(light后省略了宾语a match)

  —Nancy is not coming tonight.

  —But she promised.

  ——南希今晚不来了。

  ——但是她答应过要来的。(promised后面省略了宾语to come)

  5. 省略定语

  He spent part of the money, and the rest he saved. 他花了一部分钱,其余的他都存了起来。(the rest后面省略了定语of the money)

  6. 省略状语

  (Even) The wisest man cannot know everything.

  即使最聪明的人也不能无所不知。

  Mary spoke(rudely), and John answered rudely.

  玛丽说得粗鲁,约翰答得也粗鲁。

  He was not hurt. (How) Strange!

  他没有受伤,真奇怪!

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