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您现在的位置: 语文频道 > 高中人教新课标网观天下
形容词 副词
时间:2014-8-20 15:06:58        作者:佚名        来源:学习周报

  一、形容词和副词的基本用法

  ■(一)形容词的作用■

  形容词可以在句中作定语、表语、补足语和状语等成分。

  ■

  多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:

  冠词、指示代词——所有格——序数词——基数词——特征、特性(常含主观看法)——大小、长短、高低——年龄、温度、新旧——形态、形状——颜色——国籍、地区、出处——物质、材料——用途、类别、目的——名词。

  a big round conference table

  ■(二)副词中的几组辨析■

  1. ago, before

  ago表示的时间以现在为基准,意思是“在现在以前”某一时刻,常用于一般过去时。before表示“过去某一时间以前”,一般用于过去完成时;单独使用时泛指以前,用于现在完成时或一般过去时。

  2. fast, soon

  fast表示“速度快”。soon侧重指两件事情的先后发生,中间间隔的时间短。

  3. fairly, quite, rather

  按程度强弱排列,顺序为:rather, quite, fairly。fairly多用于褒义;rather多用于贬义形容词、too及比较级前。

  4. quite, rather

  可修饰名词,置于“不定冠词 + 名词”前。如:quite a good story, rather a strong wind。

  5. also, too, either, as well

  also和too用于肯定句,either用于否定句;also放在实义动词前和be动词、助动词之后,too常置于句末;as well与too可互换。

  6. just, just now

  just “刚才”,常用于现在完成时。just now“刚才,不久以前”,常用于一般过去时。其他情况下可互换。

  7. much too, too much

  much too修饰形容词、副词;too much修饰不可数名词,也可单独作主语、宾语或表语。

  8. already, yet, still

  already“已经”,用于肯定句;yet“已经”,用于否定句或疑问句;still“还,仍然”,一般用于肯定句或疑问句。

  ■(三)形容词及副词的位置■

  1. 形容词常放在名词前作定语,或放在系动词后作表语。

  ■

  ①当“形容词 + 介词 / 不定式”构成的短语作定语时后置。

  The man carried a bag full of wheat on his back.

  ②形容词短语作定语,定语后置。

  a leaning tower about 200 feet high。

  ③某些表语形容词,如:alike, alive等,作定语时须后置。

  a boy alive。

  温馨提示:有些表身体健康状况的形容词只作表语,如:faint, well, ill等。sick 既可作定语又可作表语,ill作定语意为“bad”。

  ④形容词与“both ... and ...”, and, or或so连在一起作定语时后置。

  They took away everything, useful or useless.

  ⑤当old, long, wide, high, deep等词和数量词短语一起作定语时后置。

  He is a boy of five years old. / The workers built a tower about sixty metres high.

  ⑥形容词修饰由不定代词one, no, any, some和every构成的复合词如anything, something等时,通常后置。

  I have something important to tell you.

  ⑦else常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语。

  2. 副词的位置

  ①时间副词和地点副词一般放在句末,若两种副词同时出现,则地点副词在前,时间副词在后,也可把时间副词放在句首。

  He did his work here yesterday.

  ②频度副词放在实义动词之前,助动词、情态动词或be动词之后。

  You must always wait in a queue.

  ③副词very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。

  I very like English. (错)

  I like English very much. (对)

  ④程度副词放在所修饰的形容词前。但副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。

  very careful, old enough

  ⑤well, right, just, soon等副词修饰介词短语时放在介词短语前;frankly, briefly, personally, luckily, generally speaking等副词修饰全句时,放在句首。

  二、形容词、副词的比较等级

  形容词、副词有三种比较等级结构,即同级比较、不同级比较和最高级,前两种用于两者之间的比较,第三种用于三者及以上的比较。此外还有其他一些用法。

  ■(一)原级比较■

  1. as + 原级 + as

  He can run as fast as I.

  2. 当as ... as 中间有名词时采用以下格式:

  as + 形容词 + a / an + 单数名词 + as

  as + many + 名词(复数) + as

  as + much + 名词[U] + as

  This is as good an example as the other is.

  3. 在否定句或疑问句中可用so ... as

  He cannot run so / as fast as you.

  4. 表示倍数的词或其他程度副词作修饰语时,放在as的前面。

  This watch is three times as expensive as that one.

  ■(二)不同级比较■

  1. 比较级 + than

  You are taller than I. / Silk is more expensive but lighter than wood.

  ■

  ①要避免将主语含在比较对象中。

  He is taller than any student in his class. (错)

  He is taller than any other student in his class. (对)

  ②要注意遵循前后一致的原则。

  The population of China is larger than that of America.

  It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

  ③要注意冠词的使用。试比较:

  Which is larger, Canada or Australia?

  Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?

  2. 比较级的惯用语

  He is no more than 17 years old. 他仅仅17岁。(no more than = only,仅仅)

  He had no less than seven wives.

  他有七个妻子。 (no less than ... = as much / many as ...,与……一样多,多达)

  My brother has not more than 2000 yuan.

  我哥哥至多有2000元钱。[not more than = at (the) most,至多]

  The clothes cost her not less than 500 yuan.

  这衣服花费她至少500元钱。(not less than = at least,至少)

  Farmers are not less important than factory workers.

  农民比工厂工人更重要。(not less ... than ... = more ... than ...,比……更……)

  He is as clever as I. / He is no less clever than I.

  他和我一样聪明。( as ... as ... = no less ... than ...,和……一样……)

  He is no taller than I. / Neither he nor I am tall.

  他和我一样都不高。( no more than = neither ... nor ...,和……一样不……)

  The child is getting stronger and stronger.

  小孩长得越来越强壮。(more and more 越来越……)

  The harder you work, the greater progress you will make.

  你工作越努力,取得的进步就会越大。(the more ..., the more ...,越……就越……)

  3. 比较级的省略

  在特定的语境中,被比较的对象不出现,但隐含在上下文中。

  ■(三)最高级■

  1. the + 最高级 + 比较范围

  China has the largest population in the world. / Spring is the best season of the year.

  2. 形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。

  3. 形容词most前面若有不定冠词a,不表示最高级的含义,只表示“非常”。

  It is a most important problem. / It is a very important problem.

  ■

  使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。

  Tom is the tallest of his three brothers. (错)

  Tom is the tallest of the three brothers. (对)

  ■(四)修饰比较级、最高级的词语■

  1. 可修饰比较级的词

  表示一方超过另一方的程度和具体数量时,可以在比较级前加上表示程度的副词或短语:even, far, much, any, still, rather, a lot, a great deal, a bit, a little, by far, three times等。以上词(除by far),必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。by far 一般放在比较级后,但放在the + 比较级前。

  He works even harder than ever before.

  I can’t walk any further.

  Is your father any better? (any常用在否定句和疑问句中)

  Obviously, this one is better by far.

  He is by far the cleverer of the two boys.

  2. 可修饰最高级的词有by far, far, nearly, much, mostly, almost, by no means等。

 

  (1)very与much都可修饰最高级,但位置不同。

  This is the very biggest. / This is much the biggest.

  (2)序数词通常只修饰最高级。

  Yellow River is the second largest river in China.

  (3)“否定词语 + 比较级”,“否定词语 + so ... as”结构表示最高级含义。

  Nothing is so easy as this. / Nothing is easier than this. / This is the easiest thing.

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