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您现在的位置: 语文频道 > 高中延伸课堂
Book 3 Unit 5知识要点总结
时间:2014-8-21 9:29:09        作者:佚名        来源:学习周报

  常用句式

  1. 【原句】There is more fresh water in Canada than in any other country in the world.

  加拿大的淡水量比世界上任何一个国家都多。

  【分析】

  同一范围内比较时,常用“主语 + 系动词 + 比较级 + than any other + 单数名词”或“主语 + 系动词 + 比较级 + than any of the other + 名词复数”;不同范围内比较,常用“主语 + 系动词 + 比较级 + than any other + 单数名词。

  e.g. He is taller than the other students in his class.

  = He is taller than any other student in his class.

  = He is the tallest in his class.

  2. 【原句】 They were not leaving for Montreal until later, so they went on a tour of the city.

  她们要晚些时候才动身去蒙特利尔,因此就在多伦多游览了一番。

  【分析】

  (1)They were not leaving for ... 是过去进行时表示将来的动作。表示位置转移的瞬间动词如: come, go, arrive, leave, start, return, stay, meet, get等可用进行时表示将来的动作。

  (2) until / till 意为“直到……为止”,until常与否定句连用,构成not ... until,意为“直到……才。”肯定形式表示“做某事直至某时”, 动词必须是延续性动词;否定形式表示“直至某时才做某事”,动词既可以是延续性的也可以是非延续性的。否定句可用以下两种句式表示:

  a. not until ... 放在句首, 主句用倒装。

  b. 用于强调句:It is not until ... that ...

  e.g. ①Not until the early years of the 19th century did the man know what heat is.

  ②It was not until yesterday that he knew about it.

  热点语法

  同位语从句

  1. 定义

  在复合句中充当同位语的名词性从句。同位语从句大多由连接词that引导,与名词之间在逻辑上是“主语 + be + 表语”的关系。该名词是需要做特殊说明的抽象名词,常常跟在fact, idea, opinion, news, hope, belief等名词的后面。

  2. 引导同位语从句的连接词

  引导同位语从句的连接词有that,whether;连接代词who, which, what和连接副词when, where, why, how等。

  (1)that引导同位语从句,只起连接作用,无具体词义。

  e.g. The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong. (作idea的同位语)

  【注意】

  在某些名词(如demand, wish, suggestion, resolution等)后面的同位语从句要用虚拟语气 。

  e.g. There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team.

  (2)whether可引导同位语从句,但if不可。

  e.g. The question whether we should call in a specialist was answered by the family doctor.

  (3)连接代词what, who, whom, whose, which引导同位语从句,在从句中作定语、主语、宾语等。

  e.g. ①I have no idea what size shoes she wears. (what作定语)

  ②The question who will take his place is still not clear. (who作主语)

  3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别

  (1)从词类上区别

  同位语从句前面的名词只能是idea, fact, news, hope, belief, suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, promise等有一定内涵的名词;而定语从句的先行词可以是名词、代词、主句的一部分或是整个主句。

  e.g. Word came that he had been abroad. (同位语从句)

  (2)从性质上区别

  定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进一步的解释和说明,属于名词性从句的范畴。

  e.g. ①The news that our team has won the game was true. (同位语从句, 补充说明news到底是一个什么样的消息。)

  ②The news that he told me yesterday was true. (定语从句, news在从句中作told的宾语。)

  (3)从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别

  a. 有些引导词如how, whether, what 可以引导同位语从句, 但不能引导定语从句。

  e.g. That question whether we need it has not been considered. (同位语从句)

  b. 引导词that引导定语从句时, 在从句中一般作主语或宾语(指物时还可以用which代替), 且作宾语时常常省略;that在同位语从句中仅起连接作用, 不充当任何成分,且不能省略, 也不能用which替代。

  e.g. ①The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday. (同位语从句, 是对order的具体解释, that虽不作成分, 但不能省略。)

  ②The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups. (前一个从句为定语从句, 是名词order的修饰语, that在从句中作received的宾语, 可以省略。)

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