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您现在的位置: 语文频道 > 高中延伸课堂
Book 3 Unit 3知识要点总结
时间:2014-8-21 10:29:25        作者:王辉        来源:学习周报

  常用句式

  【原句】 Indeed, sir, I hope you’ll come here whenever you like.

  此句是一个主从复合句,主句是“I hope”,其后是一个省略了连接词that的宾语从句,whenever引导一个时间状语从句。whenever意为“在任何时候,无论何时”,相当于no matter when。

  【拓展】

  (1) whenever, wherever, however引导让步状语从句,相当于no matter when / where / how。

  e.g. However great the difficulty is, we must complete the task in time.

  = No matter how great the difficulty is, we must complete the task in time.

  (2)whatever, whoever, whichever, whomever既可引导让步状语从句,也可引导名词性从句。引导让步状语从句时,相当于no matter what / who / which / whom。

  e.g. Whatever your problems are, you can’t lose heart.

  = No matter what your problems are,you can’t lose heart.

  【注意】

  引导名词性从句(主语从句和宾语从句 )时,不能用no matter what / who / which / whom 替代。

  e.g. ①Whoever comes will be welcome. (主语从句)

  ②Prisoners have to eat whatever they are given. (宾语从句 )

  热点语法

  宾语从句

  宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词(及物动词)、介词或形容词之后。

  1. 宾语从句谓语动词的时态:

  在宾语从句中,如果主句是一般现在时或将来时,宾语从句可以根据需要使用各种时态;如果主句谓语动词是过去时,则宾语从句必须用与过去相关的时态;如果宾语从句表示的是客观真理,其谓语动词则仍用一般现在时。

  e.g. ①Will you tell me how you learned English well?

  ②I think he’ll be back in an hour.

  ③She said she had done her homework.

  ④The teacher told us light travels faster than sound.

  2. 引导宾语从句的连词:

  (1)如果从句是陈述句,用连接词that (that通常可以省略)。

  e.g. Do you know he has joined the army?

  (2)如果从句是一般疑问句,用连接词whether / if。

  e.g. ①I asked her if she could call me.

  ②I wonder whether you can change this note for me.

  (3)如果从句是特殊疑问句,引导词用由疑问词转化而来的疑问代词或疑问副词。

  e.g. She did not know what had happened.

  【注意】

  a. 许多描述情感的形容词( happy, anxious, glad, afraid, pleased, sorry, proud, surprised, worried, ashamed, surprised等),或表示确信无疑的形容词(certain,sure等),后可带宾语从句。

  e.g. He was happy that I arrived on time.

  b. it不仅可以作形式主语,还可以作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语放在句末,尤其是在有复合宾语的句子中。

  e.g. We consider it necessary that he should improve his pronunciation.

  c. 当主句谓语动词为think, consider, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等表示思想和感觉的动词时,其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定形式转移到主句谓语动词上来,发生否定转移,而从句谓语动词仍用其肯定形式。

  e.g. I don’t think this dress fits you well.

  表语从句

  表语从句就是指在复合句中作表语的名词性从句。表语从句在复合句中放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语 + 连系动词 + 表语从句”。

  引导表语从句关联词的种类:

  (1)连接词that引导表语从句,只起连接主从句的作用,在从句中不作任何成分,不能省略。

  e.g. The trouble is that I have lost his address.

  (2)连接词whether, as, as if / though可引导表语从句, whether在表语从句中表示不确定, as表示“正如”, as if / though表示“好像”。

  e.g. ①He looked just as he had looked ten years before.

  ②It looked as if / though it happened yesterday.

  (3)连接代词what, who, whom, whoever, whatever, whomever, whose引导表语从句时,既起连接主从句的作用,又在从句中作成分(主语、宾语等)。

  e.g. That’s not what I meant.

  (4)连接副词how, when, where 引导表语从句既起连接主从句的作用,又在从句中作成分(状语)。

  e.g. ①I wondered how he came here.

  ②He knows where they are.

  【注意】

  a. 从属连词if一般不用来引导表语从句。

  b.能跟表语从句的谓语动词一般为系动词be, seem, look, appear等。

  e.g. ①It seemed that he had worked hard.

  ②It looks that the Americans will endure a cold winter.

  ③It appeared that he had an unusual taste for music.

  c. 可以接表语从句常用的还有the reason is that, it is because (强调原因) 和that’s why(强调结果) 等结构。

  e.g. ①That’s because he didn’t understand me.

  ②That’s why he got angry with me.

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