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您现在的位置: 语文频道 > 高中延伸课堂
Book 3 Unit 2 知识要点总结
时间:2014-8-22 9:07:58        作者:王辉        来源:学习周报

  ■

  rather than

  rather than在这里是并列连词,连接两个并列成分,意为“而不是……”;“与其……不如……”。它连接的主要成分有以下几种:

  (1)谓语动词

  He ran rather than walked to the school. 他是跑而不是走着去学校的。

  (2)不定式或v?鄄ing形式

  Nuclear energy is developed to benefit people rather than to harm them. 发展核能是为了造福人类,而不是危害他们。

  (3)名词

  He gave me some valuable advice rather than money. 他没有给我钱而是给了我一些很有价值的建议。

  (4)形容词

  The shoes are comfortable rather than pretty. 这鞋与其说是漂亮,不如说是舒服。

  (5)介词短语

  We will have the meeting in the classroom rather than in the great hall.

  (6)分句

  What made his parents angry was that he told a lie rather than he came home late. 使他父母生气的是他说了谎而不是回家晚了。

  have sb. doing

  (1)have sb. doing意为“允许某人做某事”时,常用于否定句中;意为“使某人做某事”时,多用于肯定句中。

  (2)have sb. do让某人做某事

  (3)have sth. done遭遇不幸;让别人做某事;完成某事

  e.g. The teacher had his students read English every morning for half an hour. 这位老师让他的学生每天早上读半个小时的英语。

  ■

  情态动词有五类:

  ①只作情态动词:must, can(could), may(might), ought to

  ②可作情态动词又可作实义动词:need, dare

  ③可作情态动词又可作助动词:shall(should), will(would)

  ④具有情态动词特征:have(had, has) to, used to

  ⑤情态动词表猜测

  各类情态动词用法小结:

  1. ought to

  (1)表示义务,意为“应该”(因责任、义务而该做)。

  e.g. The young ought to respect the old. 年轻人理应尊重老年人。

  (2)表示推测,暗含很大的可能,可译为“应该是,会是”。

  e.g. It ought to be a fine day tomorrow. 明天应该是个好天气。

  (3)表示责备

  e.g. You ought to have done it yesterday. 你昨天就应该做好这件事。

  2. 情态动词 + have done形式

  (1)can / could + have done用于疑问句或否定句中,表示对过去情况的推测。如:

  I saw Mr. Zhang just now. He can’t / couldn’t have gone to Nanjing.

  could + have done也可以用于肯定句中,表示“可能已经……”,还可以表示过去没有实现的可能性,意思是“本来可以……”如:

  You could have passed the exam, but you were not careful enough.

  (2)may / might + have done 一般用于肯定句或否定句,不用于疑问句中。表示对过去情况不肯定的猜测,意思是“也许已经……”如:

  He may / might have left school.

  She may not have finished her work.

  might+have done还可以表示“本来可能(但实际上没有)”,有时含有轻微的抱怨。如:

  You were lucky. You might have killed yourself when climbing the mountain.

  (3)must + have done只用于肯定句中,表示对过去情况肯定的推测,意思是“(过去)一定做了某事”,如果表示对过去情况否定的推测,必须用can’t / couldn’t have done,意思是“(过去)不可能做了某事”。

  (4)needn’t + have done表示“过去没有必要做某事”,只有否定式,没有肯定式。如:

  You needn’t have told him the news, for he had known it.

  (5)should / ought to + have done 表示“过去本该做,但实际上没做”;shouldn’t / oughtn’t to have done 表示“过去本不该做,但实际上做了”。

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