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您现在的位置: 语文频道 > 初中人教新课标拓展训练
Unit 3 &  4知识总结
时间:2014-8-20 17:30:25        作者:王 辉        来源:本站原创

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  1.【原句】 It is Henry Adams, an Ame?鄄rican businessman, who is lost in London and does not know what he should do.

  【分析】此句是一个强调句。“It is / was + 被强调的部分 + that / who + 原句其它部分”强调说话人的意愿, 被强调的部分为“人”时用who或that,为“物”时用that。

  e.g. ①It is this red pen that he likes very much.

  ②It was I who saw Li Ping in the street yesterday.

  2. 【原句】What it was to become was uncertain until between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into the solid globe.

  【分析】此句是一个由what引导的主语从句,what在从句中作become的表语。

  3. 【原句】It was not immediately obvious that water was to be fundamental to the development of life.

  【分析】本句中it作形式主语,真正的主语是that 引导的从句。

  e.g. It is strange that nobody knows where he lives.

  ■

  一、主语从句:

  1. 连接词:

  (1)从属连词that, whether

  that 引导主语从句只起引导作用,本身无实际意义,在主语从句中不充当任何成分。由whether引导的主语从句可放在句首或句末。

  (2)连接代词what, whatever, which, whichever, who, whoever

  (3)连接副词when, where, how, why

  2. 位置:主语从句可以前置,也可以后置。用it作形式主语,而把主语从句放在句末时,常用下面几种结构:

  (1)It + be + 表语(名词、形容词、过去分词) + 主语从句

  e.g. It is still uncertain whether he is coming or not.

  (2)It + 不及物动词 + 主语从句

  It seemed(happened, doesn’t matter, has turned out) that ...

  e.g. It happened that they were absent.

  (3) It + 及物动词(被动语态) + 主语从句

  e.g. It has been decided that the exhibition will not open on Sundays.

  【注意】

  (1)主语从句位于句首时,必须由连接词引导,且这些连接词不能省略;但如果用it作形式主语,而把主语从句放在句末时,从属连词that可以省略。

  (2) 如果主语从句位于句首,不能用if引导;但如果用it 做形式主语,而把主语从句放在句末时,则可用if引导。

  二、表语从句

  表语从句的关联词:

  1. 可用that引导,that通常不省略。

  2. 可由连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever;连接副词where, when, how引导。

  3. if不能引导表语从句,要用whether。

  4. reason作主语时,表语从句由that引导,不用because。

  e.g. The only reason was that I wanted to go with you.

  5. 连词because可引导表语从句。because引导表语从句强调原因,why强调结果。

  【注意】

  (1)表语从句中的虚拟语气

  主句的主语是 idea, advice, proposal, request, requirement 等名词时,表语从句的谓语应用虚拟语气。主语无论是单数还是复数,谓语一律用v. 原形或should + v. 原形。

  e.g. The proposal of the UK is that UK peacekeeping force (should) be sent to the area.

  (2)what, when, where等连接词有两种含义:一种表示疑问,一种表示陈述,相当于the thing that, the time when, the place where, 表示“……的人、事”,“……的时间”,“……的地点”等。

  e.g. This is where ( = the place where) we found the interest.

  【疑难辨析】

  what, that和which三者都可引导主语从句和表语从句:

  (1)that只起连接作用,在从句中不充当句子成分,且无实际意义。

  (2)what和which除起连接作用外,还在主语从句和表语从句中充当成分,如主语、宾语、表语和定语等,有实际意义,不能省略。what意为“什么”时,指具体内容,而which指一定范围的“哪一个”。whatever和whichever与what和which的区别相同。

  山西 王 辉

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